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While UNDP continued in 2014 to support early recovery and peace building efforts throughout the country and managed to reach 72% of its targets, three achievements in particular have the potential of far-reaching transformational impact:
(1) In support of the Darfur Peace Process, the Darfur Development Strategy (DDS) was launched and operational structures established. Through three consecutive meetings of the Darfur Development Board, its terms of reference and its technical committees were finalized. In addition, the UN Darfur Fund and its institutional structure were established as a pooled funding mechanism for UN/NGO interventions under the DDS and for which the Qatar Development Fund has approved an initial allocation of US$ 88.5 million. The DDS is the first internationally approved strategy for the reconstruction and recovery of Darfur and bears tremendous potential in support of the Darfur peace process, should the situation stabilize.
(2) In the first half of 2014, the National Human Rights Commission was established, organizational structures developed and its strategic plan developed and endorsed (SNHRC Strategic Plan 2014-2018). The approval of the strategic plan is a major achievement for this institution unique in the Sudanese context, as it sets out its priorities for the next four years in terms of institutional and capacity development towards becoming a full-fledged and independent human rights institution. In 2014, UNDP has been the only development partner that provided support to the nascent institution, and the mobilization and provision of high-caliber international expertise as well as the organization of a number of visioning and capacity development activities have proven to be critical. Accordingly, the UN Human Rights Expert on Sudan describes UNDP’s overall support in its report to the Human Rights Council of 20th September 2014 as “indispensable for sustaining the implementation plan of the review”, and it “urges the international community to assist UNDP with the necessary funds to enable it to continue supporting the Government in that regard”.
(3) Through a number of concerted and coordinated activities, the national climate change adaptation portfolio was established in 2014 by the Ministry of Environment (MoE) and the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR). In the course of the year, the National Appropriate Mitigation Actions Framework (NAMA) was drafted, the 5th National Biodiversity Report submitted to UNCBD, and the Sudan Readiness Preparation Report approved by the REDD Policy Board in Lima, Peru in July 2014. The strong national ownership and leadership in the implementation of these activities will ensure the sustainability of the climate change adaptation portfolio as well as the continued government buy-in. Alongside these preparations, UNDP brokered 3 new partnerships in support of the portfolio in 2014 to the total value of US$ 20.3 million, to kick-start adaptation activities and the use of wind energy, solar pumping and solar lighting across some of the most vulnerable communities in Sudan.
Poverty Reduction and MDGs
Through UNDP’s interventions in Darfur, South Kordofan and Eastern Sudan, 32,000 people benefitted from new or expanded livelihood opportunities using new diversified agricultural production technologies, and over 4,000 jobs were created. In parallel, UNDP intervened at the national level in line with its overall livelihoods strategy to launch a labor-intensive employment model in collaboration with the Ministry of Labor, drawing on experiences from Kenya, South Africa and India. The newly established Labor Coordination Unit embedded in the Ministry of Labor coordinates the creation of labor-intensive jobs at national and state-levels and provides an interface between local government, private sectors and youth. It also facilitates access to training and labor market information. Providing young workers with longer-term productive employment, it supports improvements to regional infrastructure and public services. Aiming at developing national capacities for development planning and coordination through the provision of technical advice and dedicated trainings, UNDP also supported the drafting of the "Sudan Aid Strategy". In the same context, UNDP has in 2014 supported the development of a "Plan of Action for the National Strategy for Development of Statistics" and the development of a "Compendium for Statistical Work in Sudan”, which will allow for better coordinated and targeted development interventions across the country.
UNDP’s support to improving basic service delivery to vulnerable populations is composed of 2 axes: service delivery to people exposed to malaria, HIV/Aids and tuberculosis; and service delivery to displaced populations affected by conflict and natural disasters.
In 2014, UNDP continued the implementation of 4 grants (2 Malaria, 1 HIV, 1 TB and Health System Strengthening) with a total signed grant value of USD 235 million. Three out of the 4 grants were rated “exceeding expectations”. Through UNDP-managed programmes, a total of 1,398,383 malaria cases have received anti-malarial treatment, the HIV/AIDS grants reached 261,028 people with HIV counseling and testing, and the tuberculosis grant has enabled the case notification of 20,181 TB cases. UNDP has also constructed and rehabilitated about 237 infrastructure projects in Sudan, including voluntary testing centers, blood banks, PMTCT centers, drug warehouses, Academy of Health Science buildings, and TB laboratories, out of which 32 were finalized in 2014. Based on strong achievements, the Global Fund committed additional grants amounting to a total of US$ 145 million for the period 2015-2017, with UNDP being the principle recipient along with the Federal Ministry of Health. Based on strong achievements, the Global Fund committed additional grants amounting to a total of US$ 145 million for the period 2015-2017, with UNDP being the principle recipient.
Further, over 2.4 million of the 3.1 internally displaced people were provided with critical basic services including access to drinking water, basic education, shelter, food and basic health services. UNDP contributed to this achievement through the management of NGO projects in the context of the Common Humanitarian Fund, channeling over US$ 27 million to NGOs and ensuring the effective implementation of projects in collaboration with OCHA and UN sector leads. As shown by a NGO beneficiary survey administered in December 2014, the overall NGO satisfaction rate with UNDP services received in 2014 improved from 89 to 94%, making these an outstanding success.
Energy and Environment
Supporting the emerging climate change and disaster risk reduction portfolio, the key target for 2014 was the establishment of new partnerships for improved energy efficiency and sustainable energy solutions for marginalized groups, while efforts to diversify livelihoods through sustainable production technologies for vulnerable populations continued.
With key partnerships in place and significant resources mobilized, the portfolio is being scaled up. As a result of interventions related to Climate Change adaptation and funded by the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), the adaptive capacity to climate change of 1850 farmers (including 1250 women) continued to increase considerably, resulting in increased agricultural yield up to 150%. Improved food security was achieved through the introduction of new crops, reducing food shortage risks. Further, national ownership for, and capacities to manage climate change and environmental resources reached a new maturity level in 2014. In the course of the year, the National Appropriate Mitigation Actions Framework (NAMA) was drafted, the 5th National Biodiversity Report submitted to UNCBD, and the Sudan Readiness Preparation Report approved by the REDD Policy Board.
Governance and Rule of Law
Government capacities at national and state level for the planning, budgeting and monitoring of public services have slightly improved since 2010. While the overall level of capacities measured by public perception surveys remain low, public participation in planning and budgeting processes and transparency has improved in the 4 states where UNDP has provided support in 2013 and 2014. Improvements have been most noticeable in North Darfur and Gedaref.
Improvements in North Darfur and Eastern Sudan have been achieved through continued technical support provided 2013/4 to local administrations heavily impacted by a notorious lack of revenues, capacities, and funding. UNDP specifically worked with the state ministries of finance, strategic planning councils, locality councils and legislative councils. Technical and analytical support provided to the Kassala and Gedaref State Strategic Planning Councils resulted in the production of a background document for the production of State Poverty Reduction Strategy, and the establishment of an Inter-Ministerial State Poverty Reduction Strategy Task Force. Moreover, a Strategic Planning Center was established within the University of Gedaref, Eastern Sudan. The center aims at providing strategic planning advisory and progress monitoring for Gedaref states and the localities.
At the same time, technical consultations were held at the national level on decentralization and fiscal federalism in partnership with Ministry of Finance and the Higher Council for Decentralization in Sudan. Conceptual frameworks were reviewed to improve the decentralized governance system and federal resource allocations to the states. The consultations and the provision of technical advice by UNDP have also resulted in a shift in government policies, reflected in constitutional amendments in 2014 that clarify relations and roles between the federal and state level. The amendments also included provisions for land management and participatory decision-making on local investment.
With a new Rule of Law programme under development, UNDP Sudan efforts in 2014 were focused on establishing a key human rights institution. UNDP supported the newly established National Human Rights Commission to produce and launch its 1st strategic plan in March 2014 through provision of technical assistance on strategic planning. The strategic plan is a major achievement for the newly created institution as it sets out its priorities for the next four years in terms of institutional and capacity development towards becoming a full-fledged and independent human rights institution. UNDP also supported the commission to produce a training curriculum, and organized two trainings on monitoring and reporting of human rights violations, and on best practices in protecting human rights of prison's inmates. Accordingly, the UN Human Rights Expert on Sudan describes UNDP’s overall support in its report to the Human Rights Council of 20th September 2014 as “indispensable for sustaining the implementation plan of the review”, and it “urges the international community to assist UNDP with the necessary funds to enable it to continue supporting the Government in that regard”.
A further achievement was the establishment of the National Committee for Counter-Trafficking. The committee was formed based on a presidential decree by the Council of Ministers in 2014. The committee that was established with UNDP’s technical support and will work to develop a strategy for human trafficking that encompasses law reforms, improved refugee camps, and engagement in the international dialogue on human trafficking.
On women rights, awareness of rural communities, civil society and government institutions has been raised significantly through media outreach, forums, workshops, drama, music, as well as production of handicrafts. During the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Violence Campaign, a total of 232,000 people were reached in 5 states. The success of the campaign was based on a strong partnership with civil society, universities, and government institutions.
Conflict Prevention and Recovery
Despite the overall increase conflict dynamics in Darfur and the southern states, UNDP managed to promote and stabilize local peace processes, building capacities of traditional, government, civil society-led peace building mechanisms and strengthening resilience of conflict affected communities. UNDP supported the conclusion of 3 new peace agreements in West and South Kordofan through the facilitation of intra-tribal dialogues. With clear demarcation of key migratory corridors in Blue Nile State the intensity of local conflicts was reduced, with incident reports to police dropping from 400-500 during the 2013 harvest season to 37 in the 2014 harvest season. Through the organization of peace festivals in Blue Nile and South Kodofan, over 7,500 people were sensitized to promoting a culture of peace in their areas. These results were achieved through continuous collaboration with state peace-building mechanisms, civil society organizations, local level peace-building committees and peace ambassadors in the southern states. In 2014, UNDP additionally established a Peace Innovation Hub at the University of Khartoum, serving as a vehicle for information exchange, networking and collaborative initiatives between peace actors across Sudan. The capacity of the Blue Nile Peace Council has further developed through dedicated UNDP technical support, as evidenced by their increasing ability to plan and carry out their own peace-building initiatives with minimal guidance. The Council trained 493 stakeholders in peace-building and conflict transformation. Of the 25% of participants surveyed, 88% reported that they used skills or tools gained in the 3-4 months following the training. In Darfur, UNDP supported the strengthening of 183 community-based conflict resolution mechanisms and 26 new community based reconciliation mechanism (CBRM) were established. 1011 conflict cases were presented to the CBRMs in 2014, and 82% (829 cases) were resolved and 75% of beneficiaries have communicated that they now have access to the CBRMs and are satisfied with their results.
Despite the unstable and shifting security conditions in the different geographic areas, UNDP continued supporting peace dividends for sustainable return, reintegration and recovery.
In Darfur 36,500 (62% female) vulnerable households in 48 communities were supported to improve their livelihoods through provision of livelihoods assets, agricultural and income generation skills and access to temporal labour based employment and production, value addition and marketing of 4 different commodities which are groundnuts, hibiscus, honey and hides and skins. A Youth Volunteer scheme was successfully established and 139 youth volunteers were deployed to support 47 communities in the 5 States of Darfur. 3000 youth benefited from 1100 working days of temporal employment through production of Stabilized Soil Blocks. Field monitoring data indicates that beneficiary incomes increased by 20% within 11 months. More than 100,000 households in different communities have increased access to basic services through the construction and rehabilitation of 269 community infrastructures such as wells, dams, markets, boreholes, hand pumps, schools, youth and community centers, thereby reducing competition and conflict over basic and natural resources.
In Blue Nile, South Kordofan and Darfur, UNDP provided 8 communities with seven critical social economic infrastructures. Projects included approximately 73% (26,344) out of the 36,251 demobilized fighters (21% women) who have received reintegration support. The construction of community infrastructure throughout Darfur and the South is currently benefiting a total of 71,315 people and is shown to have increased the rule of law, reduced tensions over water, reduced high drop-out rate among girls in high school and improved livelihoods of the communities.
To learn more about each of these initiatives, visit our project pages.